A perfect fit in 24 hours: Bespoke 3D printed clothing poised to transform fashion

A project between Loughborough University and clothing manufacturer the Yeh Group is set to make it possible to manufacture entire garments and footwear that perfectly fit their intended wearer in just 24 hours.

The project, which will run for the next 18 months, has come about as a result of advancements in additive manufacturing, enabling clothing to be printed in their entirety from a raw material such as polymer, without the waste and associated costs normally associated with clothing production.

“With 3D printing there is no limit to what you can build and it is this design freedom which makes the technology so exciting by bringing to life what was previously considered to be impossible,” said Dr Guy Bingham, senior lecturer in product and industrial design at Loughborough University,

“This landmark technology allows us as designers to innovate faster and create personalised, ready-to-wear fashion in a digital world with no geometrical constraints and almost zero waste material. We envisage that with further development of the technology, we could 3D print a garment within 24 hours.”

3D printing has the potential to dramatically transform the clothing industry, moving manufacture away from major factories and into physical stores.

At present 1.8m tonnes of waste material are produced and 6.3 billion m³ of water is used every year by the industry, which additive manufacturing could almost completely eliminate.

There is also the matter of fit. An estimated two thirds of women and one quarter of men currently wear the wrong size, but if clothing manufacturing were to switch to 3D printing, it would make bespoke, well-fitting clothes the affordable norm.

Dr Guy Bingham with some 3D printed fabric

Dr Guy Bingham with some 3D printed fabric

Then there’s the issue of fashion trends. At present most brands follow a four-season-a-year model, based around a strict schedule of shows, deliveries and sales, but with 3D printing clothing trends could last for shorter periods for so-called ‘fast fashion’, while long-lasting styles could be reproduced for years without being taken off the shelves.

“Printing clothes using additive manufacturing will revolutionise the fashion industry worldwide by opening up digital manufacturing to the masses via online retail, bringing a much needed update to 19th century techniques and processes,” explained Bingham.

“This modern approach to clothing production helps meet the growing demand for personalised apparel and footwear which through 3D printing can be produced in a sustainable and ethical way.”

A University of Loughborough researcher scans a foot to create the data for 3D printed footwear

A University of Loughborough researcher scans a foot to create the data for 3D printed footwear

Previous efforts have been made to use 3D printing in this notoriously difficult-to-penetrate industry, but this project looks likely to have  greater success than most, thanks to the involvement of the Yeh Group.

As a major global garment manufacturer with high-profile retail brands among their clients, they have the ability to actually change the way the fashion industry operates in a way that university researchers simply cannot.

Images © Steven Lake

Images © Steven Lake

“3D Fashion supports the Yeh Group vision of direct polymer to garment manufacture, ” said David Yeh, managing director of Yeh Group division Ton Siang.

“The Yeh Group is always striving to cut out unnecessary waste and resource use, and support the industries goals of faster to market, creating a manufacturing technology that brands and retailers can install closer to their customers. This is all with no compromise to performance.”

An unnamed major fashion house is also providing design input, which should ensure that the resulting garments are appealing to wear.

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Stronger in old age: Stem cell research paves way for muscle-building medication

It could in the future be possible to take medication that will allow you to build muscle, even when you are in old age.

This is due to the findings of research at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, which found that large, and wholly unexpected, amounts of mutations in muscle stem cells blocks their ability to regenerate cells.

“What is most surprising is the high number of mutations. We have seen how a healthy 70-year-old has accumulated more than 1,000 mutations in each stem cell in the muscle, and that these mutations are not random but there are certain regions that are better protected,” said Maria Eriksson, professor at the Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Karolinska Institutet.

With this knowledge, researchers could develop therapies that would encourage such regeneration, and so allow older people to rebuild lost muscle.

“We can demonstrate that this protection diminishes the older you become, indicating an impairment in the cell’s capacity to repair their DNA. And this is something we should be able to influence with new drugs,” explained Eriksson.

The landmark research, which is published today in the journal Nature Communications, involved the use of single stem cells, which were cultivated to provide enough DNA for whole genome sequencing – a medical first for this part of the body.

“We achieved this in the skeletal muscle tissue, which is absolutely unique. We have also found that there is very little overlap of mutations, despite the cells being located close to each other, representing an extremely complex mutational burden,” said study first author Irene Franco, a postdoc in Eriksson’s research group.

While a significant step, the research is now being expanded to look at whether exercise affects the number of mutations – a potentially vital factor in understand why and how these mutations occur.

“We aim to discover whether it is possible to individually influence the burden of mutations. Our results may be beneficial for the development of exercise programmes, particularly those designed for an ageing population,” said Eriksson.

The research is one of a host of projects being conducted across the world that have potential impacts on ageing, an area that was long ignored by much of the scientific community, but is now garnering increased support.

If many – or even a fair minority – of these findings eventually become the basis of therapeutics, it could be transformative for old age in the future, allowing people to remain healthier for far later in life and potentially even leading to longer life expectancies.