‘Spooky action at a distance’ demonstrated in single-particle quantum experiment for first time

A team of scientists have for the first time successfully demonstrated the non-local collapse of a particle’s wave function in an experiment using a single particle.

Using homodyne detectors to measure the particle, and quantum tomography to map the effect of those measurements, the scientists, from Griffith University and the University of Tokyo, were able to verify single-particle quantum entanglement an unusual form of entanglement that could prove invaluable for quantum computing and communications.

While quantum entanglement usually refers to two particles that are bound by opposing spins, the directions of which will only be set when they are observed, single particles can also be entangled, meaning their wave function – ie the equation that defines their likely location and behaviour – can cover any distance.

In other words, a single entangled particle can only be in one place at a given time, but it can be located over a very large distance. When the particle is measured, the wave function will instantly collapse to a set location.

Professor Howard Wiseman at the Centre for Quantum Dynamics. Image courtesy of Griffith University.

Professor Howard Wiseman at the Centre for Quantum Dynamics. Image courtesy of Griffith University.

This was demonstrated by the scientists, who split a single photon between their labs in Japan and Australia, but was previously regarded as an unlikely phenomenon by Albert Einstein.

Almost 90 years ago, he used single-particle entanglement as evidence that quantum mechanics was incorrect, deriding non-local wave function collapse as “spooky action at a distance”.

“Einstein never accepted orthodox quantum mechanics and the original basis of his contention was this single-particle argument,” explained Professor Howard Wiseman, director of Griffith University’s Centre for Quantum Dynamics.

“This is why it is important to demonstrate non-local wave function collapse with a single particle.”

While taking issue with quantum mechanics, Einstein proposed an alternative hypothesis for the particle’s behaviour.

“Einstein’s view was that the detection of the particle only ever at one point could be much better explained by the hypothesis that the particle is only ever at one point, without invoking the instantaneous collapse of the wave function to nothing at all other points.”

Although this alternative theory seems more acceptable to the human brain, Wiseman and his colleagues have shown it to be incorrect.

“Rather than simply detecting the presence or absence of the particle, we used homodyne measurements enabling one party to make different measurements and the other, using quantum tomography, to test the effect of those choices,” he explained.

“Through these different measurements, you see the wave function collapse in different ways, thus proving its existence and showing that Einstein was wrong.”

The research was published today in Nature Communications.


Journal reference: Fuwa M, Takeda S, Zwierz M, Wiseman HM, Furusawa A. Experimental proof of nonlocal wavefunction collapse for a single particle using homodyne measurements. Nature Communications 06 March 2015. doi:10.1038/ncomms7665.


 

Russia announces testing of country-wide drone control network, paving way for commercial boom

Roscosmos, the Russian space agency, has announced that it will begin testing a vast drone control network that will run across the nation.

The network, which is based on the country’s extensive existing satellite system, will allow small UAVs to safely operate in massive numbers within Russian airspace.

Once established, it will likely lead to an explosion in the commercial use of drones in the country, with drone deliveries in particular becoming viable on an unprecedented scale.

The announcement was made at Navitech 2017 in Moscow yesterday by experts from Russian Space Systems, a space hardware company owned by Roscosmos. Outlining the details of the system, they said that testing would begin this year, but did not provide a precise date for its start.

Each drone in the network will follow a route determined by the system, with ground-based infrastructure continuously receiving real-time data about its location and flight parameters.

This will immediately be processed and disseminated across the network, to ensure that large numbers of drones can be safely flown at any time, without interfering with both each other and traditional airspace traffic.

The network will not require the establishment of major new infrastructure, as all data will be transmitted through a combination of existing systems: FM transmitters, the country’s established cellular communication systems and GLONASS, Russia’s global satellite navigation system, which has provided 100% coverage of the country since 2011.

The system will also provide real-time data about no-fly zones, allowing routes to be adjusted immediately in response to changing information, and will offer a “platform of integrated applications” to UAV operators, content providers and insurance companies.

Roscosmos believes that the system will significantly reduce operating costs for drone owners by limiting the risks involved with running a commercial drone operation, as well as creating the conditions for new industries to emerge.

Among the industries the space agency expects to blossom through the adoption of the network are drone insurance, cloud software that would increase the capabilities of drones and what it calls “convenient services” – a term that likely refers to drone deliveries.

If the platform does deliver on this hope, it is likely Russia would become the first country with an extensive drone delivery network, realising a dream that was first brought to prominence by Amazon back in 2013. However, the US-based company is unlikely to become the main player in the Russian market, having as yet shown little interest in the country for its Prime Air operations.

As with many countries, drone deliveries are currently a rare occurrence in Russia, with notable exceptions including DoDo Pizza, a Syktyvkar-based company that began delivering pizzas to local residents back in 2014.

NFL players’ union signs historic deal that will enable players to sell their own performance data and make them “healthier and wealthier”

The NFL players association (NFLPA) has signed a landmark deal with human performance company WHOOP that will give players access to, ownership of and the option to sell their individual health data.

All current and future NFL players will be issued with a WHOOP Strap 2.0, which allows them to, without interference from their clubs, monitor their own performance, recovery and sleep.

WHOOP’s strap contains five sensors that measure data 100 times per second and automatically transmit it to accompanying mobile and web apps. WHOOP has also developed a Team Dashboard, which it says has “27 levels of privacy to ensure sharing data is completely secure and comfortable for all parties involved”.

“Our mission at WHOOP is to empower athletes. This partnership with the NFLPA is truly the first of its kind in that athletes will finally become both healthier and wealthier by collecting, controlling, and ultimately having the ability to sell their own health and performance data,” said Will Ahmed, founder and CEO at WHOOP.

“We applaud the NFLPA’s vision and share its commitment to work with athletes to better monitor their recovery and enable longer careers.”

Image and featured image courtesy of Alan Kotok

The partnership between the NFLPA and WHOOP is the first of its kind and was secured through the OneTeam Collective, which is an initiative designed to give companies like WHOOP the opportunity to leverage the NFLPA’s exclusive player rights.

WHOOP has hinted at seeking further partnerships with players’ unions in future.

In addition to owning their own data, as part of the agreement NFL players can design custom licensed bands for the WHOOP Strap, which will be made available commercially and allow players to further monetise the arrangement between the two parties.

“Every day, NFL players produce data that can translate into physiological and financial opportunities. We see partnering with WHOOP as the first step in harnessing this exciting technology,” said Ahmad Nassar, President of NFL Players Inc.

“We are excited to have WHOOP and its innovative, holistic monitoring technology serve as our first OneTeam Collective deal. Together, we’re paving the way towards a new frontier where athletes are empowered by data.”

Russell Okung playing for the Denver Broncos in 2016. Image courtesy of By Jeffrey Beall – Own work, CC BY 4.0

Along with the commercial opportunities WHOOP will offer players, the partnership also promises to help players optimise training and recovery, improve performance and reduce injuries.

The NFLPA and WHOOP will both study the effects travel, sleep, scheduling and injuries have on recovery and generate reports for players aimed at boosting athletic performance.

“WHOOP and the NFLPA are putting the power of data directly in the players’ hands. I want to recover faster, avoid injuries, and have a longer career. This partnership has the potential to contribute to my health, which is imperative to my career in football,” said Russell Okung of the Los Angeles Chargers.