Do You Trust Your Digital Assistant? Listening Tech Joins the Privacy Debate

Voice-activated virtual assistants are competing to manage your life, and while it appears appealing to have a digital assistant taking care of our needs, are we sure we can trust them to keep our information secure? We take a look at the pros and cons of giving Samsung’s Bixby, Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa and Google Assistant unparalleled access to our data

Every since Captain Kirk uttered “Computer” and the USS Enterprise’s onboard AI woke ready to do his bidding, tech giants have been striving to develop practical voice-activated assistants to replace the keyboard. In the last couple of years the technology has come on leaps and bounds and interactions with other internet-enabled devices, enabling us to order groceries, dim the lights or find out the latest football scores with a couple of spoken words have emerged.

It’s no surprise then that the world’s biggest personal technology providers are vying for our voice commands to steer business their way. But people have raised concerns that devices in the house that are ‘always listening’ could be spying on them. News stories such as Samsung warning customers about discussing personal information in front of its smart television and Arkansas police demanding that Amazon release recordings from an Echo device that was present at the scene of a murder have helped stir misconceptions about how much our devices are listening in.

Are security concerns justified?

According to Alec Muffett, a freelance blogger, speaker, software engineer and computer/network security consultant who serves on the board of directors for the Open Rights Group, such fears are unfounded and are down to a basic misunderstanding of how the technology works.

If one treats voice command as a glorified keyboard for putting search terms into Google or Amazon or anything like that, what does it matter that it’s voice as opposed to all this other information which they’re already collecting about you?

“If one treats voice command as a glorified keyboard for putting search terms into Google or Amazon or anything like that, what does it matter that it’s voice as opposed to all this other information which they’re already collecting about you?” he asks.

If you use Google, and especially if you have an Android phone, you can get an insight into how much data is gathered on your activity via the Google Dashboard, for example. Similarly, consumers with Google Assistant enabled can access can review their voice command activity through the Google My Activity dashboard.

“You can go through your history, and there’s a transcription of what you asked, like ‘What’s the weather like in London today?’ and there’s a playback button next to it where you can hear your voice command. Your device records what you’re saying and uploads it to Google, because that’s part of their engineering and debugging process.”

However, the listening and recording doesn’t start until you say the ‘wake word’ relevant to that platform – ‘Siri’ or ‘OK Google’ for example. The way those commands are identified doesn’t require the constant listening some people fear, as that would be hideously inefficient. Instead it uses a similar pattern-matching trick to the Shazam tune identification app.

“Shazam doesn’t upload an audio clip because that would be really noisy. It analyses the frequency pattern of the sound – there’s some high frequencies here, low frequencies there, a pulsing backbeat– are there any songs with that fingerprint? Shazam can look up a fingerprint faster than it can match segments of audio,” explains Muffett.

So if people are worried that Apple, Amazon or Google are listening to them, it’s only because that is what they’re buying into when they trigger listening by saying the keyword, which is identified through Shazam-type fingerprint matching.

“If people are upset or concerned, is it in an informed way?” Asks Muffett. “Otherwise what they’re doing is essentially marching up and down and demanding the new looms at the mill are taken down because it will destroy work in the future; it’s that level of Luddism,” he warns.

Don’t wait for the law

While the consumer has a responsibility to understand how his or her data is collected and used, Scot Ganow, a US attorney at the law firm of Faruki, Ireland, Cox, Rhinehart & Dusing PLL in Dayton, Ohio, advises corporate clients on privacy and security law practice. He recently delivered a compelling TEDx Dayton talk on Humanity in Privacy.

“There’s a paradox that we have with privacy,” says Ganow. “We want the convenience, we want the technology, but we also want privacy, and Americans are negotiating this transaction every day. I think the biggest issue is, are they doing it knowingly, are they aware of everything their private data influences?”

Image courtesy of Apple. Featured image courtesy of Amazon

Concerning stories such as Samsung’s snooping TV or the Amazon Echo potentially recording evidence of a crime, Ganow says, ”Any time a story like this breaks that tweaks people’s spooky button as to whether companies or the government should be doing this, you always hear the question ‘Surely there’s a law against this?’ Often there aren’t laws for a specific area, and I’d encourage authorities to be slow in making laws about new technology, because laws that are made quickly tend to be not very good law.

“The biggest impact you can have on your privacy is through the choices you make on a day-to-day basis. The law will be too slow, the technology will only be as good as you, and in the market place, let’s be clear, they want your data, and they want more of it.”

Ganow encourages his business clients and companies to build privacy into technology using the approach promoted by the Canadian movement Privacy By Design. This suggests that technology that uses personal data must be built with privacy at the forefront, and ultimately give the user clear choices, making it easier for them to say yes or no.

“Generally speaking the companies that make digital assistants, like Amazon, Google and Apple, build in privacy protection,” he says. “Siri doesn’t record and act on your commands unless you give it the keyword to do it. Part of Apple’s culture is a respect for privacy. We saw that in the US when Apple refused FBI requests to create software that would unlock an iPhone recovered from one of the shooters in the 2015 San Bernadino terrorist attack.”

While companies are doing their part to secure customer’s data, Ganow’s message to people using these devices is to educate themselves on the privacy and security functions of the product before turning it on and connecting it to the network, and exercise the options provided.

“As with any technology, it tends to blend into the background and people seem to forget that it’s on. There’s a very simple solution; unplug it when you no longer want to use it, when you go to bed at night, or if you have concerns. Make conscious choices as to when you’re going to use it and when you’re not.”

And, as the device itself may not be the weakest point in your data security, Ganow adds a final piece of advice. “As with all devices, make sure you’re implementing a secure wireless network within your house.”

Proactive personal assistants 

Once we’re satisfied that our data is secure and being captured on our terms, can we be sure that the choices digital assistants make on our behalf are right for us? Ariel Ezrachi is the Slaughter and May Professor of Competition Law and a Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. Along with Maurice E Stucke, Professor of Law at the University of Tennessee and co-founder of The Konkurrenz Group, he wrote Virtual Competition, a book which examines whether the sophisticated algorithms and data-crunching that make browsing so convenient are also changing the nature of market competition.

He warns that as virtual assistants are being increasingly adopted by customers, this could generate risk as we trade convenience for competition and giving away more and different personal data.

“Personal digital assistants are alluring,” Ezrachi says. “They can read to our children, order beer and pizza, update us on traffic and news, and stump us with Stars Wars trivia. So we likely will trust them.

Our chosen personal helper will have unparalleled access to our information. Our assistant will become pro-active. Knowing what shows we watch, the stories we read, and the music and food we like, they will anticipate our needs

“Our chosen personal helper will have unparalleled access to our information. Our assistant will become pro-active. Knowing what shows we watch, the stories we read, and the music and food we like, they will anticipate our needs. Using our personal data, including our calendar, texts, e-mails, and geolocation data, our personal assistant may recognise a busier than usual day, and suggest a particular Chinese restaurant. Powered by AI, the helper will become an integral part of our life.

“In doing so, its gate-keeper power increases in controlling the information we receive. One concern is economic, namely its ability to engage in behaviour discrimination and foreclose rival products. But the larger concern is social and political, namely its ability to affect the marketplace of ideas, elections and our democracy.”

The nature of the voice interface itself may also mean we’re missing out.

“The moment you run a traditional query, if you’re unhappy with the results, you have the screen in front of you and it’s easy to navigate through other options,” Ezrachi says. “With voice activation people will rely much more on the first reply we get from the digital helper; it lends itself to a single recommendation or a very short list.”

Will our digital assistants be with us from cradle to grave? 

Like it or not, digital assistants are here to stay, and for the next generation they could become as indispensible and ubiquitous as mobile phones are today.

“Mattel is now selling a baby digital virtual assistant called Aristotle,” says Ezrachi. “It can help purchase diapers, read bedtime stories, soothe infants back to sleep, and teach toddlers foreign words.

“For babies born in 2017, a digital assistant may become their lifelong companion, who will know more about each person than parents, siblings, or individuals themselves.”

For that to be an exciting rather than terrifying prospect requires consumers to educate themselves on the privacy and security functions of their device and how their data is captured and used today, so it can serve them better tomorrow.

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World-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking has died at the age of 76. When Hawking was diagnosed with motor neurone disease aged 22, doctors predicted he would live just a few more years. But in the ensuing 54 years he married, kept working and inspired millions of people around the world. In his last few years, Hawking was outspoken of the subject of AI, and Factor got the chance to hear him speak on the subject at Web Summit 2017…

Stephen Hawking was often described as being a vocal critic of AI. Headlines were filled with predictions of doom by from scientist, but the reality was more complex.

Hawking was not convinced that AI was to become the harbinger of the end of humanity, but instead was balanced about its risks and rewards, and at a compelling talk broadcast at Web Summit, he outlined his perspectives and what the tech world can do to ensure the end results are positive.

Stephen Hawking on the potential challenges and opportunities of AI

Beginning with the potential of artificial intelligence, Hawking highlighted the potential level of sophistication that the technology could reach.

“There are many challenges and opportunities facing us at this moment, and I believe that one of the biggest of these is the advent and impact of AI for humanity,” said Hawking in the talk. “As most of you may know, I am on record as saying that I believe there is no real difference between what can be achieved by a biological brain and what can be achieved by a computer.

“Of course, there is unlimited potential for what the human mind can learn and develop. So if my reasoning is correct, it also follows that computers can, in theory, emulate human intelligence and exceed it.”

Moving onto the potential impact, he began with an optimistic tone, identifying the technology as a possible tool for health, the environment and beyond.

“We cannot predict what we might achieve when our own minds are amplified by AI. Perhaps with the tools of this new technological revolution, we will be able to undo some of the damage done to the natural world by the last one: industrialisation,” he said.

“We will aim to finally eradicate disease and poverty; every aspect of our lives will be transformed.”

However, he also acknowledged the negatives of the technology, from warfare to economic destruction.

“In short, success in creating effective AI could be the biggest event in the history of our civilisation, or the worst. We just don’t know. So we cannot know if we will be infinitely helped by AI, or ignored by it and sidelined or conceivably destroyed by it,” he said.

“Unless we learn how to prepare for – and avoid – the potential risks, AI could be the worst event in the history of our civilisation. It brings dangers like powerful autonomous weapons or new ways for the few to oppress the many. It could bring great disruption to our economy.

“Already we have concerns that clever machines will be increasingly capable of undertaking work currently done by humans, and swiftly destroy millions of jobs. AI could develop a will of its own, a will that is in conflict with ours and which could destroy us.

“In short, the rise of powerful AI will be either the best or the worst thing ever to happen to humanity.”

In the vanguard of AI development

In 2014, Hawking and several other scientists and experts called for increased levels of research to be undertaken in the field of AI, which he acknowledged has begun to happen.

“I am very glad that someone was listening to me,” he said.

However, he argued that there is there is much to be done if we are to ensure the technology doesn’t pose a significant threat.

“To control AI and make it work for us and eliminate – as far as possible – its very real dangers, we need to employ best practice and effective management in all areas of its development,” he said. “That goes without saying, of course, that this is what every sector of the economy should incorporate into its ethos and vision, but with artificial intelligence this is vital.”

Addressing a thousands-strong crowd of tech-savvy attendees at the event, he urged them to think beyond the immediate business potential of the technology.

“Perhaps we should all stop for a moment and focus our thinking not only on making AI more capable and successful, but on maximising its societal benefit”

“Everyone here today is in the vanguard of AI development. We are the scientists. We develop an idea. But you are also the influencers: you need to make it work. Perhaps we should all stop for a moment and focus our thinking not only on making AI more capable and successful, but on maximising its societal benefit,” he said. “Our AI systems must do what we want them to do, for the benefit of humanity.”

In particular he raised the importance of working across different fields.

“Interdisciplinary research can be a way forward, ranging from economics and law to computer security, formal methods and, of course, various branches of AI itself,” he said.

“Such considerations motivated the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures, which up until recently had focused largely on techniques that are neutral with respect to purpose.”

He also gave the example of calls at the start of 2017 by Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) the introduction of liability rules around AI and robotics.

“MEPs called for more comprehensive robot rules in a new draft report concerning the rules on robotics, and citing the development of AI as one of the most prominent technological trends of our century,” he summarised.

“The report calls for a set of core fundamental values, an urgent regulation on the recent developments to govern the use and creation of robots and AI. [It] acknowledges the possibility that within the space of a few decades, AI could surpass human intellectual capacity and challenge the human-robot relationship.

“Finally, the report calls for the creation of a European agency for robotics and AI that can provide technical, ethical and regulatory expertise. If MEPs vote in favour of legislation, the report will go to the European Commission, which will decide what legislative steps it will take.”

Creating artificial intelligence for the world

No one can say for certain whether AI will truly be a force for positive or negative change, but – despite the headlines – Hawking was positive about the future.

“I am an optimist and I believe that we can create AI for the world that can work in harmony with us. We simply need to be aware of the dangers, identify them, employ the best possible practice and management and prepare for its consequences well in advance,” he said. “Perhaps some of you listening today will already have solutions or answers to the many questions AI poses.”

You all have the potential to push the boundaries of what is accepted or expected, and to think big

However, he stressed that everyone has a part to play in ensuring AI is ultimately a benefit to humanity.

“We all have a role to play in making sure that we, and the next generation, have not just the opportunity but the determination to engage fully with the study of science at an early level, so that we can go on to fulfill our potential and create a better world for the whole human race,” he said.

“We need to take learning beyond a theoretical discussion of how AI should be, and take action to make sure we plan for how it can be. You all have the potential to push the boundaries of what is accepted or expected, and to think big.

“We stand on the threshold of a brave new world. It is an exciting – if precarious – place to be and you are the pioneers. I wish you well.”