Half Man, Half Machine: Preparing for humans’ symbiotic relationship with technology

In the not all that distant future we will be able to swap out parts of our bodies like changing parts in a car and fight diseases like Parkinson's with a simple software update. We hear from Nexeon MedSystems CEO and bionics consultant for Deus Ex: Human Revolution Will Rosellini about the increasingly intimate realtionship between man and machine

If you’ve played seminal cyberpunk video game Deus Ex: Human Revolution, the name Will Rosellini may be familiar to you. You’ve probably hacked his computer in Sarif Industries headquarters, and read some rather terse emails between him and cybersecurity chief Frank Pritchard.

What you probably don’t know is that Will Rossellini is a real person. In fact, as chairman and CEO of bioelectronics company Nexeon MedSystems, he consulted on the video game to provide an accurate roadmap of the future development of human augmentation upon which the game is based.

A fan of the Deus Ex series since its development by Warren Spector back in 2000, Rosellini was disappointed that the 2003 sequel failed to contain the detail about augmentation that its predecessor had been so praised for. So when he heard that a new game was in development, he was keen to offer his expertise.

Image courtesy of Eidos-Montréal

“So I called the CEO of the videogame company and said ‘hey can I fix this for you guys? I’m an expert in neurotechnology, I love the game, I understand what the gamers want because I’m a gamer, let me go and write all of this,” Rossellini says. “So in 2007 I started writing the technology that would be used in Deus Ex.

“The fun part was I didn’t have to work that hard to predict what was going to be around in 2027 because that’s my job.”

According to Rossellini, in the time since the game has been released many of the predictions he made in his augmentation roadmap have started to become true.

“I was able to write what I thought was going to be happening and it did,” he explains. “A lot of stuff came true, and at the time that looked like crazy science fiction, but that made the game even more fun I think to see there was some reality behind how you had your health recovery or your ability to use your eye prosthesis etc.”

Software updates to fight disease

A key driver for Rossellini’s roadmap for the game was his belief that humans are increasingly going to have more car-like bodies in the future, where individual parts can freely be exchanged and upgraded as needed.

“My philosophy is that our bodies are going to look more like cars in the future, where we are making parts that can fit into anybody’s system, where we are upgrading parts the same way we upgrade a cell phone,” he says.

Our bodies are going to look more like cars in the future, where we are making parts that can fit into anybody’s system, where we are upgrading parts the same way we upgrade a cell phone

This could include new-and-improved organs, which could be custom printed and programmed to seamlessly work with a given individual.

However, of particular note is that this would not just cover hardware; it would also cover software that could be remotely updated to respond to new diseases or syndromes as required.

“If you think about the body of the car, there’s going to be a lot more ‘here’s the software program for Parkinson’s; download it’, just like the Tesla,” he says.

And while this is clearly some way away, the notion of running remote updates to implanted medical devices isn’t as far away as it seems.

“It’s happening now, so it’s just a question of how much software, what it does, what it can help you with, etc.,” Rossellini says. “Right now some of [medical device manufacturer] St Jude’s products today can be upgraded remotely with software downloads. So it’s just beginning.”

Cloud-integrated nervous systems

While these developments will undoubtedly have a phenomenal impact on human health, it is the potential to gather data about particular conditions on a completely unprecedented scale that Rossellini believes will have the biggest effect.

“My opinion is that these devices are going to start moving from the nervous system and being able to integrate with the enormous amounts of data that is up in the cloud already,” he explains.

“I think we’ll have dramatic, dramatic discoveries about how much we know about the patient’s disorder from the data that exists.”

As a result, Rossellini believes that the large-scale collection and cloud sharing of medical device data will very quickly lead to hitherto unprecedented cures for a host of different conditions.

“I think in five years we’ll be just ticking off disorder after disorder based on this data splurge that is going to come from linking all the information up and doing meta data analysis on it,” he says. “That’s what I think is next.”

Artificial hardware 

Image courtesy of Eidos-Montréal

We are, of course, some way off this goal, however the first steps are well underway and it’s not hard to see how things could progress from the current state of affairs to the heavily augmented future that Rossellini is predicting.

“We won’t be there in 20 years, but right now we’ve already been able to replace almost 30 different functions in the human body with an artificial device: artificial pancreas, artificial heart, artificial eyes, ears, nose, sexual organs,” he explains.

“So if you look at it on a map, you’re going to have a lot of hardware incorporated into your body’s and then it’s just a question of downloading new software as the programs come in.

“So that’s the vision of the world that we actually have, and we put that in Deus Ex and that seemed to be popular.”

Ethical roadmap

You’d be forgiven for being concerned about this future. It is, after all, a radical change in what it is to be human, with the potential to bring us to a new stage in our species’ development.

However, Rossellini is very keen to stress that considerable effort has been put into developing a strict code of ethics for human augmentation to ensure the technology is implemented responsibly.

“We spent a lot of time creating a code of ethics and human augmentation, and CNN threw a conference to kick it off,” he says. “We are adhering to a fairly strict ethical code as we think about how to be responsible with the technology.”

Covering both the medical and the DIY community, this ethical framework, entitled Human X Design, is designed to be a starting point that will be built upon as the technology progresses, covering responsible stewardship, public beneficence and justice alongside freedom and responsibility. And while it is very early days, it is hoped that by thinking about these topics now, they can be better dealt with future.

“In order to foster a sense of private agency and bolster public responsibility, discourse around human augmentation has to happen, now,” Rossellini and his co-authors wrote in the framework. “We hope this framework provides some tailored ways of deliberating the ethical questions that will shape our future.”

DJI’s First Drone Arena in Tokyo to Open This Saturday

Consumer drone giant DJI will open its first Japanese drone arena in the city of Tokyo this Saturday, providing a space for both hardened professionals and curious newcomers to hone their flying skills.

The arena, which covers an area of 535 square metres, will not only include a large flying area complete with obstacles, but also offer a store where visitors can purchase the latest DJI drones and a technical support area where drone owners can get help with quadcopter issues.

The hope is that the arena will allow those who are curious about the technology but currently lack the space to try it out to get involved.

“As interest around our aerial technology continues to grow, the DJI Arena concept is a new way for us to engage not just hobbyists but also those considering this technology for their work or just for the thrill of flying,” said Moon Tae-Hyun, DJI’s director of brand management and operations.

“Having the opportunity to get behind the remote controller and trying out the technology first hand can enrich the customer experience. When people understand how it works or how easy it is to fly, they will discover what this technology can do for them and see a whole new world of possibilities.”

Images courtesy of DJI

In addition to its general sessions, which will allow members of the public to drop by and try their hand at flying drones, the arena will also offer private hire, including corporate events. For some companies, then, drone flying could become the new golf.

There will also be regular events, allowing pros to compete against one another, and drone training, in the form of DJI’s New Pilot Experience Program, for newcomers.

The arena has been launched in partnership with Japan Circuit, a developer of connected technologies, including drones.

“We are extremely excited to partner with DJI to launch the first DJI Arena in Japan,” said Tetsuhiro Sakai, CEO of Japan Circuit.

“Whether you are a skilled drone pilot or someone looking for their first drone, we welcome everyone to come and learn, experience it for themselves, and have fun. The new DJI Arena will not only serve as a gathering place for drone enthusiasts but also help us reach new customers and anyone interested in learning about this incredible technology.”

The arena is the second of its kind to be launched by DJI, with the first located in Yongin, South Korea, and detailed in the video above. .

Having opened in 2016, the area has attracted visitors from around the world, demonstrating serious demand for this type of entertainment space.

If the Tokyo launch goes well, it’s likely DJI will look at rolling out its arena concept to other cities, perhaps even bringing the model to the US and Europe.

For now, however, those who are interested can book time at the Tokyo arena here.

Commercial Human Spaceflight Advances Prompt Calls for Space Safety Institute

Commercial human spaceflight has been a long-held dream, but now it is finally poised to become a reality. Companies including Virgin Galactic and SpaceX are inching ever closer to taking private citizens into space, and there are serious plans for spaceports in several parts of the world, including Hawaii, the US, and Scotland, the UK.

But while the industry is advancing, the legal side of this fledgling commercial space industry remains underdeveloped, leading to calls for the development of an organisation to establish a framework for the safe operation of spaceports for human commercial spaceflights.

Writing in the journal New Space, Mclee Kerolle, from the United States International Institute of Space Law in Paris, France, has proposed the establishment of a Space Safety Institute recognised by the US congress and the United Nations.

This institute would “develop, enforce and adopt standards of excellence”, allowing the industry to develop while protecting it from liability and insurance risks.

“Currently, no international regulatory body exists to regulate the operation of spaceports,” he wrote. “This is unfortunate because while the advent of commercial human spaceflight industry is imminent, a majority of the focus from the legal community will be on regulating spaceflights and space access vehicles.

“However, the regulation of spaceports should be viewed in the same light as the rest of the commercial human spaceflight industry.”

The article focuses particularly on the establishment of a spaceport at the Kona International Airport in Keahole, Hawaii. At present, the spaceport’s development is subject to regulation by the Federal Aviation Authority, however there are aspects to spaceport development that do not apply to conventional aviation operations.

A spacesuit design for commercial flights developed by SpaceX. Featured image: SpaceX’s proposed spaceport for its conceptual interplanetary transport system. All images courtesy of SpaceX

The institute would be designed to first and foremost ensure safety within the industry, so it would be important, according to Kerolle, to ensure it was made up of individuals with expertise in the field, rather than bureaucrats.

“To make sure that this flexibility is inherent in a Space Safety Institute, the organization should be composed of individuals within the industry as opposed to government officials who are not familiar with the commercial human spaceflight industry,” he wrote.

“As a result, this should protect the commercial human spaceflight industry to some liability exposure, as well as promote growth in the industry to ensure the industry’s survival.”