Target 2021: BMW’s bold plans for fully automated driving within half a decade

BMW has set itself the ambitious target of unleashing self-driving cars on the world by 2021, but currently no one anywhere in the world has developed anything beyond part-automated driving. So what makes BMW think they can go one better? We find out

We all know that driverless cars are racing toward us, and even at this stage we know it’s a matter of when not if they arrive, but getting us to the point where we can safely take our hands off the wheel isn’t a simple task. To do that, we need cars that can think for themselves, not to mention overcoming various liability and regulatory issues. German car giant BMW has a plan though, and says it can deliver fully autonomous, sleep-in-the-driving-seat, take-your-eyes-off-the-road, cars by 2021.

“Since 100 years ago we are driving by ourselves, but with the technology changes, with the supercomputers, with the internet of things, with 100% connectivity everything has changed. Disruptively,” says Elmar Frickenstein, senior vice president of fully automated driving and driver assistance at the BMW Group. “The autonomous driving will come. With these supercomputers we are able to make it happen to be in 2021 for fully-automated driving.”

BMW has been in the automotive industry for a century and it recognises that it’s not always easy to bring disruption to such a well-oiled machine.

For this reason, BMW is partnering with a number of innovative startups and companies from outside the automotive industry like Intel and Nokia, whose products can bring BMW’s established brand into the 21st century. BMW calls its startup programme Startup Garage, but will associations with companies new and old be enough to eject drivers from BMW’s cars?

How driverless cars get from A to B

“We have to do a lot of different things. We have to do the electronics, we have to do new architecture in a [driverless] car. We have to create a backend solution. We have to create a full blown sensor set up and sensor fusion. We have to create the motion control and finally we have backend security as well as vehicle security to think about,” says Frickenstein.

“We need artificial intelligence and in the middle we need to have an environmental model, which includes a supercomputer that checks everything from the street.”

Images courtesy of BMW

As well as the fundamental technology, there is also a wealth of knowledge that cars need to be able to drive without human interference. Humans have the advantage of years of road experience, as well as intuitively knowing the road position of the car and the by-product of the speed of the car (neither too fast nor too slow is desirable).

Humans also have information about speed limits, pedestrians, accidents, and can make decisions that while not strictly legal, are in the best interests of other road users. This is the kind of information that we need to impart to driverless cars.

“With all this knowledge you are able to drive a car from A to B, without that you cannot do that, so this is our task and therefore we need the supercomputers, we need the software, we need the IT and the 100% connectivity. We have to team up our BMW team with partners. We start partnering together with cross-industry collaboration. It is not possible to do these jobs only in the automotive industry,” explains Frickenstein.

Spirit of collaboration

Realising its limitations and collaborating with experts in other fields appears to be BMW’s roadmap to 2021 and driverless technology. Need to know about AI? Ask Intel. Interested in mobile technology? Check with Nokia.

If we make fully-autonomous driving cars, we create less accidents, less traffic, less parking and searching algorithms and less CO2

It’s this kind of collaborative spirit that led to BMW’s participation in the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA). The group includes Audi, BMW and Daimler from the automotive side and Ericsson, Huawei, Intel, Nokia, Vodafone and Qualcomm from the telecoms industry, and has been set up to develop 5G technology for future connected and autonomous vehicles.

As well as collaborations between companies, BMW has also spoken of the need for nations to work together in order to make autonomous driving a reality. “We need a lot of test fields to do tests on the street,” says Frickenstein. “We need it in Germany, we need it in the US, we need it in Israel as well as in China. We need a lot of help from the legal department, certification and legal requirements to do our jobs.”

The spirit of collaboration autonomous driving necessitates has obvious benefits for both parties, in that new business streams are created for both; but it will also benefit communities rather than just individual drivers. “If we are making ride sharing, for example, and we make fully-autonomous driving cars, we create less accidents, less traffic, less parking and searching algorithms and less CO2, so there is a big benefit for the customer and a big benefit also for the community,” says Frickenstein.

Startup Garage

Frickenstein explains that we’ve already achieved semi-automated driving, but nobody has been able to push beyond that point at this stage. “No driver assistance, no electronics in, this is level 0. With level 2 it’s partly automated driving. We are talking about temporary hands off, temporary eyes off. Nobody in the world has created more than level 2, so the whole automotive industry is in level 2 and in the next years, we are on the way to go to level 3,” says Frickenstein.

To get to level 3, BMW will need new technologies that solve the problems driverless cars raise. In order to get these new technologies, BMW has created the Startup Garage, which takes innovative technologies, products or services, made by startup companies, and uses them to significantly advance and disrupt the automotive industry. Startups that are selected to work in the garage undergo a special programme lasting several months. At the core of this programme is the development of a functional prototype that pushes BMW’s cars to go further, faster and without human interference.

It goes without saying that letting 3,000-pound death machines steer themselves without humans at the controls will take an awful lot of work. BMW will need to ensure that regulation is changed to let that happen, but there are also a lot of technological challenges to overcome as well.

The car giant has recognised that it needs unfamiliar technologies to achieve fully-automated driving by 2021, and the best way to innovate is to work with innovative partners. We can’t understate the size of the task BMW has given itself: four years to transform the automotive industry; but it has put partnerships in place to achieve that target.

Adding stem cells to the brains of mice “slowed or reversed” ageing

Albert Einstein College of Medicine scientists “slowed or reversed” ageing in mice by injecting stem cells into their brains.

The study, published online in the journal Nature, saw the scientists implant stem cells into mice’s hypothalamus, which caused molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) to be released.

The miRNA molecules were then extracted from the hypothalamic stem cells and injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of two groups of mice: middle-aged mice whose hypothalamic stem cells had been destroyed and normal middle-aged mice.

This treatment significantly slowed aging in both groups of animals as measured by tissue analysis and behavioural testing that involved assessing changes in the animals’ muscle endurance, coordination, social behaviour and cognitive ability.

“Our research shows that the number of hypothalamic neural stem cells naturally declines over the life of the animal, and this decline accelerates aging,” said senior author Dongsheng Cai, M.D., Ph.D., professor of molecular pharmacology at Einstein.

“But we also found that the effects of this loss are not irreversible. By replenishing these stem cells or the molecules they produce, it’s possible to slow and even reverse various aspects of aging throughout the body.”

To reach the conclusion that stem cells in the hypothalamus held the key to aging, the scientists first looked at the fate cells in the hypothalamus as healthy mice got older.

The number of hypothalamic stem cells began to diminish when the mice reached about 10 months, which is several months before the usual signs of aging start appearing. “By old age—about two years of age in mice—most of those cells were gone,” said Dr. Cai.

Images courtesy of the Mayo Clinic.

The researchers next wanted to learn whether this progressive loss of stem cells was actually causing aging and was not just associated with it.

To do this, the scientists observed what happened when they selectively disrupted the hypothalamic stem cells in middle-aged mice.

“This disruption greatly accelerated aging compared with control mice, and those animals with disrupted stem cells died earlier than normal,” said Dr. Cai.

Finally, to work out whther adding stem cells to the hypothalamus counteracted ageing, the scientists injected hypothalamic stem cells into the brains of middle-aged mice whose stem cells had been destroyed as well as into the brains of normal old mice.

In both groups of animals, the treatment slowed or reversed various measures of aging.

The scientists are now trying to identify the particular populations of microRNAs that are responsible for the anti-aging effects seen in mice, which is perhaps the first step toward slowing the aging process and successfully treating age-related diseases in humans.

Self-driving delivery cars coming to UK roads by 2018

A driverless vehicle designed to deliver goods to UK homes is set to take to the road next year after the successful conclusion of an equity crowdfunding campaign.

Developed by engineers at The University of Aberystwyth-based startup The Academy of Robotics, the vehicle, Kar-Go, is road-legal, and capable of driving on roads without any specific markings without human intervention.

Kar-Go has successfully raised £321,000 through Crowdcube – 107% of its goal – meaning the company now has the funds to build its first commercially ready vehicles. This amount will also, according to William Sachiti, Academy of Robotics founder and CEO, be matched by “one of the largest tech companies” in the world.

Images courtesy of Academy of Robotics

The Academy of Robotics has already built and tested a prototype version of Kar-Go, and is working with UK car manufacturer Pilgrim to produce the fully street-legal version.

The duo has already gained legal approval from the UK government’s Centre for Autonomous Vehicles, meaning the cars will be able to immediately operate on UK roads once built.

The aim of Kar-Go is to partner with suppliers of everyday consumer goods to significantly reduce the cost of deliveries, and the company’s goal in this area is ambitious: Sachiti believes Kar-Go could reduce delivery costs by as much as 98%.

Whether companies go for the offering remains to be seen, but the company says it is in early stage discussions with several of the largest fast-moving consumer goods companies in Europe, which would likely include the corporations behind some of the most recognisable brands found in UK supermarkets.

Introducing Kar-go Autonomous Delivery from Academy of Robotics on Vimeo.

While some will be sceptical, Sachiti is keen to drive the company to success, and already has an impressive track record in future-focused business development. He previously founded Clever Bins – the solar powered digital advertising bins found in many of the nation’s cities – and digital concierge service MyCityVenue – now part of SecretEscapes.

“As a CEO, it is one of my primary duties to make sure Kar-go remains a fantastic investment, this can only be achieved by our team producing spectacular results. We can’t wait to show the world what we produce,” he said.

“We have a stellar team who are excited to have begun working on what we believe will probably be the best autonomous delivery vehicle in the world. For instance, our multi-award winning lead vehicle designer is part of the World Championship winning Brabham Formula One design team, and also spent years as a Design Engineer at McLaren.”