Cheaper, cleaner and with five times more energy: Researchers discover new method for building zinc-air batteries

Lithium-ion batteries could soon be replaced as the power source of choice in electronic devices as researchers have discovered how to build rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

Zinc-air batteries are batteries powered by zinc metal and oxygen from the air, which, thanks to the global abundance of zinc metal, are much cheaper to produce than lithium-ion batteries and can also theoretically store five times more energy  than that of lithium-ion batteries.

Zinc-air batteries  are also much safer and more environmentally friendly.

Featured image courtesy of the University of Sydney

However, their widespread use has been hindered by the fact that, up until now, recharging them has proved difficult. This is due to the lack of electrocatalysts that successfully reduce and generate oxygen during the discharging and charging of a battery.

In the journal Advanced Materials, researchers from the University of Sydney have outlined a new three-stage method to overcome this problem.

“Up until now, rechargeable zinc-air batteries have been made with expensive precious metal catalysts, such as platinum and iridium oxide. In contrast, our method produces a family of new high-performance and low-cost catalysts,” said the study’s lead author Professor Yuan Chen, from the University of Sydney’s Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies.

University of Sydney researchers used a new method – creating bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts – which allowed them to build rechargeable zinc-air batteries from scratch.

The researchers also replaced precious metal catalysts with low cost variations, which were produced through the simultaneous control of the composition, size and crystallinity of metal oxides in earth-abundant elements such as iron, cobalt and nickel.

The study’s co-author Dr Li Wei, also from the University’s Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, said trials of zinc-air batteries developed with the new catalysts had demonstrated excellent rechargeability – including less than a 10% battery efficacy drop over 60 discharging and charging cycles of 120 hours.

“We are solving fundamental technological challenges to realise more sustainable metal-air batteries for our society,” Chen added.

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Source: Engadget

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Source: The Verge

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Source: BBC

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Source: Bloomberg

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Source: BBC

A quarter of ethical hackers don’t report cybersecurity concerns because it’s not clear who they should be reporting them to

Almost a quarter of hackers have not reported a vulnerability that they found because the company didn’t have a channel to disclose it, according to a survey of the ethical hacking community.

With 1,698 respondents, the 2018 Hacker Report, conducted by the cybersecurity platform HackerOne, is the largest documented survey ever conducted of the ethical hacking community.

In the survey, HackerOne reports that nearly 1 in 4 hackers have not reported a vulnerability because the company in question lacks a vulnerability disclosure policy (VDP) or a formal method for receiving vulnerability submissions from the outside world.

Without a VDP, ethical, white-hat hackers are forced to go through other channels like social media or emailing personnel in the company, but, as the survey states, they are “frequently ignored or misunderstood”.

Despite some companies lacking a VDP, the hackers surveyed in the report did say that companies are becoming more open to receiving information about vulnerabilities than they were in the past.

Of the 1,698 respondents, 72% noted that companies have become more open to receiving vulnerability reports in the past year,

That figure includes 34% of hackers who believe companies have become far more open.

Unlike a bug bounty program, a VDP does not offer hackers financial incentives for their findings, but they are still incredibly effective.

Organisations like the US Department of Defence have received and resolved nearly 3,000 security vulnerabilities in the last 18 months from their VDP alone.

India (23%) and the United States (20%) are the top two countries represented by the HackerOne hacker community, followed by Russia (6%), Pakistan (4%) and the United Kingdom (4%).

The report revealed that because bug bounties usually have no geographical boundaries the payments involved can be life changing for some hackers.

The top hackers based in India earn 16 times the median salary of a software engineer. And on average, top earning hackers make 2.7 times the median salary of a software engineer in their home country.

In terms of which demographics are attracted to a life of ethical hacking, the report found that over 90% of hackers are under the age of 35, and unsurprisingly the vast majority of hackers on the HackerOne platform are male.