Living artificial leaves: Solar panel-covered ‘cyborg’ bacteria to generate the renewable fuels of the future

Scientists have developed so-called ‘cyborg’ bacteria that mimic the natural photosynthesis of leaves to renewably generate food, fuels and plastics using only sunlight.

The bacteria, which are covered in minute semiconductors that serve as tiny solar panels, function in much the same way as natural leaves, but in a far more efficient manner.

“Rather than rely on inefficient chlorophyll to harvest sunlight, I’ve taught bacteria how to grow and cover their bodies with tiny semiconductor nanocrystals,” explained Dr Kelsey K Sakimoto, who undertook the research in Dr Peidong Yang’s lab at the University of California, Berkeley. “These nanocrystals are much more efficient than chlorophyll and can be grown at a fraction of the cost of manufactured solar panels.”

The research, which is being presented today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society has the potential to be developed into a valuable alternative to fossil fuels.

“Once covered with these tiny solar panels, the bacteria can synthesize food, fuels and plastics, all using solar energy,” said Sakimoto. “These bacteria outperform natural photosynthesis.”

The research involved taking a natural bacterium, Moorella thermoacetica, which is not conventionally capable of photosynthesis, and feeding it chemicals that it synthesised to augment its capabilities.

As the bacterium naturally produces acetic acid from CO₂, introducing other genetically engineered bacteria can enable it to produce fuels, polymers and even pharmaceuticals. In this case, Sakimoto fed it both cadmium and cysteine, an animo acid that contains sulphur, causing the bacteria to synthesis cadmium sulphide nanoparticles on its surface: the tiny solar panels that allow it to beat leaves in photosynthesising.

“The thrust of research in my lab is to essentially ‘supercharge’ nonphotosynthetic bacteria by providing them energy in the form of electrons from inorganic semiconductors, like cadmium sulfide, that are efficient light absorbers,” explained Dr Peidong Yang. “We are now looking for more benign light absorbers than cadmium sulfide to provide bacteria with energy from light.”

Image courtesy of Kelsey K Sakimoto

While the bacteria has only been developed in a lab setting, with an 80% efficiency, if it can be developed into a commercial product, it has the potential to be a hugely impactful technology in the transition away from fossil fuels.

“Synthetic biology and the ability to expand the product scope of CO₂ reduction will be crucial to poising this technology as a replacement, or one of many replacements, for the petrochemical industry,” said Sakimoto.

Other research has been previously undertaken to produce artificial leaves, which many hope could be used to form future decentralised power plants, however this research offers a significant improvement that could give it a much higher chance of being commercialised.

“Many current systems in artificial photosynthesis require solid electrodes, which is a huge cost,” explained Sakimoto. “Our algal biofuels are much more attractive, as the whole CO₂-to-chemical apparatus is self-contained and only requires a big vat out in the sun.”

Scientists implant device to boost human memory

Scientists have enhanced human memory for the first time with a “memory prosthesis” brain implant. The team behind the device say it can boost performance on memory tests by up to 30%, and a similar approach may work for enhancing other brain skills, such as vision or movement.

Source: New Scientist

Astronomers discover Earth-sized world 11 light years away

A planet, Ross 128 b, has been discovered in orbit around a red dwarf star just 11 light years from the Sun. The planet is 35% more massive than Earth, and it likely exists at the edge of the small, relatively faint star's habitable zone even though it is 20 times closer to its star than the Earth is to the Sun.

Source: Ars Technica

An algorithm can see what you've learned before going to sleep

Researcher fed the brain activity from sleeping subjects to a machine learning algorithm, and it was able to determine what the subject had learned before falling asleep. In other words, an algorithm was able to effectively ‘read’ electrical activity from sleeping brains and determine what they were memorising as a result.

Source: Motherboard

Elon Musk unveils Tesla Truck and Tesla Roadster

Elon Musk has unveiled the long-anticipated 'Tesla Semi' – the company's first electric articulated lorry. The vehicle has a range of 500 miles on a single charge, and will go into production in 2019. Unexpectedly, Tesla also revealed a new Roadster, which will have a range of close to 1,000km (620 miles) on a single charge and will do 0-100mph in 4.2 seconds.

Source: BBC

Arrivo plans to build 200mph hyperloop-lite track

Arrivo, the company founded by former Hyperloop One engineer Brogan BamBrogan, has announced a partnership with Colorado’s Department of Transportation. Arrivo will now build a magnetised track to transport existing vehicles, cargo sleds and specially designed vehicles alongside preexisting freeways at 200mph in the city of Denver.

Source: The Verge

Boston Dynamics' Atlas robot can now do backflips

It's been a busy week for Boston Dynamics, first the company revealed it SpotMini robot dog was getting an upgrade, and now the company has shared a video of its Atlas humanoid robot leaping from platforms and doing a backflip. It seems like an obvious thing to say, but it's not easy to make a robot do a backflip, so how Boston Dynamics has managed it is anyone's guess.

Source: WIRED

The all new Factor Magazine is here – your guide to how today, tomorrow and beyond are being shaped

Guess who’s back, back again.

It’s been a few months, but Factor has returned with a bigger and better format, bringing the same future news and discussion, but on a platform that you can read on any device.

We’ve been working towards this for a long, long time: this is how we’ve always wanted the magazine to look, and we’re so happy to share this with you. It can be viewed on any web browser, on anything from a mobile to a monster PC, and if you’re on a desktop or laptop, click the button in the bottom right-hand corner for the ultimate shiny reading experience. A digital magazine has never looked this good. Probably.

Unfortunately that means no more iPad app, but as you can easily read the magazine from an iPad web browser, we hope you’ll agree that what we’ve gained is so much better than what’s been lost.

So anyway, here it is: the Winter 2017 issue of Factor, the first issue of the quarterly version of the magazine.

In case any of you are worrying about us publishing the magazine quarterly, trust us you don’t need to. We’ve produced the biggest issue of Factor ever, so packed with futuristic awesomeness, that we’ve had to divide it into three sections: Today, Tomorrow and Beyond.

Today deals with the futuristic present, as much of what we think of as ‘the future’ already exists today. We look at how humanoid robots are being employed as co-workers, hear from the legendary Richard Stallman about the vanishing state of privacy and discover how automation is already taking jobs. Plus, we take a light hearted look at the futuristic world of Mr Tesla, Elon Musk, and provide our festive present suggestions in a bumper futuristic gift guide.

Moving on to Tomorrow, and it’s all about the world of the next few decades, as technologies that are in development now reach fruition and seep into our everyday lives. We consider how flying cars are inching towards reality, with a look at both Lilium and the newly announced UberAir, and find out how driverless delivery may be the first true instance of the self-driving future.  Plus, we also look at the Christmas dinners of the future, because why the hell not.

Finally, in Beyond we look at the way-out future that many of us probably won’t live to see, but is supremely cool to think about. We ask leading futurists to predict what’s in store in the 22nd century – not the most positive of pictures, unfortunately – and consider what jobs will remain in a post-automation world. Plus, we look at the potential first homes of the human race beyond the solar system, and check out how asteroid mining is set to shape off-earth development.

Take a look, and if you like what you see and read, please share the magazine with your friends, or tell us what you think. This is a completely free magazine, with not an ad in sight, so it’s always good to know that it’s worth the effort.