Artificial intelligence would improve IVF’s success rate, research finds

Using artificial intelligence to determine embryos with the best chance of producing successful pregnancies through in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) would increase the procedure’s rate of success, according to a study.

The research, presented today at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) in Geneva, found that using AI to standardise the selection of ‘good quality’ embryos would make viable embryo selection more accurate and so increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.

A popular choice for couples with fertility problems, IVF involves removing eggs from the woman’s ovaries, fertilising them with sperm to produce embryos and then implanting the most viable back into the womb, where they – all being well – will develop as normal into a healthy baby.

As part of this, embryologists determine which embryos are most viable for implantation, however despite this selection process, between 30 and 60% fail to implant successfully. Part of the reason for this is patient age, but there is also the fact that different embryologists will make different calls about whether an embryo is viable.

“The issue is that morphological grading by humans leads to wide inter and intra-operator variation,” said investigator Professor José Celso Rocha, from São Paulo State University, Brazil. In other words, embryologists’ assessment of an embryo’s shape and development results in significantly different conclusions depending on who is doing the assessing. And it is this variation that Rocha believes AI can help with.

“To classify images automatically will increase the predictive value of our embryo assessment,” he said. “By increasing objectivity and repeatability in embryo assessment, we can improve the accuracy of diagnosing embryo viability. Clinics can use this information as ‘artificial intelligence’ to customise treatment strategies and better predict a patient’s chance of pregnancy.”

The study which is the focus of this argument involved bovine embryos, with 482 seven-day-old embryos used to ‘train’ the AI system to recognise viable embryos from non-viable ones. The system assessed the embryos against 36 variables to determine viability, resulting in an accuracy of 76% – an improvement on conventional methods – and increased general consistency.

Now the research has moved onto human embryos, and although it is in the early stages of development, it is hoped that it will produce a highly repeatable system that will make future embryo classification far more consistent.

However, while AI might be poised to take over a part of the IVF process, it is human expertise that it will draw from.

“The artificial intelligence system must be based on learning from a human being,” said Rocha. “That is, the experienced embryologists who set the standards of assessment to train the system.”

Adding stem cells to the brains of mice “slowed or reversed” ageing

Albert Einstein College of Medicine scientists “slowed or reversed” ageing in mice by injecting stem cells into their brains.

The study, published online in the journal Nature, saw the scientists implant stem cells into mice’s hypothalamus, which caused molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) to be released.

The miRNA molecules were then extracted from the hypothalamic stem cells and injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of two groups of mice: middle-aged mice whose hypothalamic stem cells had been destroyed and normal middle-aged mice.

This treatment significantly slowed aging in both groups of animals as measured by tissue analysis and behavioural testing that involved assessing changes in the animals’ muscle endurance, coordination, social behaviour and cognitive ability.

“Our research shows that the number of hypothalamic neural stem cells naturally declines over the life of the animal, and this decline accelerates aging,” said senior author Dongsheng Cai, M.D., Ph.D., professor of molecular pharmacology at Einstein.

“But we also found that the effects of this loss are not irreversible. By replenishing these stem cells or the molecules they produce, it’s possible to slow and even reverse various aspects of aging throughout the body.”

To reach the conclusion that stem cells in the hypothalamus held the key to aging, the scientists first looked at the fate cells in the hypothalamus as healthy mice got older.

The number of hypothalamic stem cells began to diminish when the mice reached about 10 months, which is several months before the usual signs of aging start appearing. “By old age—about two years of age in mice—most of those cells were gone,” said Dr. Cai.

Images courtesy of the Mayo Clinic.

The researchers next wanted to learn whether this progressive loss of stem cells was actually causing aging and was not just associated with it.

To do this, the scientists observed what happened when they selectively disrupted the hypothalamic stem cells in middle-aged mice.

“This disruption greatly accelerated aging compared with control mice, and those animals with disrupted stem cells died earlier than normal,” said Dr. Cai.

Finally, to work out whther adding stem cells to the hypothalamus counteracted ageing, the scientists injected hypothalamic stem cells into the brains of middle-aged mice whose stem cells had been destroyed as well as into the brains of normal old mice.

In both groups of animals, the treatment slowed or reversed various measures of aging.

The scientists are now trying to identify the particular populations of microRNAs that are responsible for the anti-aging effects seen in mice, which is perhaps the first step toward slowing the aging process and successfully treating age-related diseases in humans.

Self-driving delivery cars coming to UK roads by 2018

A driverless vehicle designed to deliver goods to UK homes is set to take to the road next year after the successful conclusion of an equity crowdfunding campaign.

Developed by engineers at The University of Aberystwyth-based startup The Academy of Robotics, the vehicle, Kar-Go, is road-legal, and capable of driving on roads without any specific markings without human intervention.

Kar-Go has successfully raised £321,000 through Crowdcube – 107% of its goal – meaning the company now has the funds to build its first commercially ready vehicles. This amount will also, according to William Sachiti, Academy of Robotics founder and CEO, be matched by “one of the largest tech companies” in the world.

Images courtesy of Academy of Robotics

The Academy of Robotics has already built and tested a prototype version of Kar-Go, and is working with UK car manufacturer Pilgrim to produce the fully street-legal version.

The duo has already gained legal approval from the UK government’s Centre for Autonomous Vehicles, meaning the cars will be able to immediately operate on UK roads once built.

The aim of Kar-Go is to partner with suppliers of everyday consumer goods to significantly reduce the cost of deliveries, and the company’s goal in this area is ambitious: Sachiti believes Kar-Go could reduce delivery costs by as much as 98%.

Whether companies go for the offering remains to be seen, but the company says it is in early stage discussions with several of the largest fast-moving consumer goods companies in Europe, which would likely include the corporations behind some of the most recognisable brands found in UK supermarkets.

Introducing Kar-go Autonomous Delivery from Academy of Robotics on Vimeo.

While some will be sceptical, Sachiti is keen to drive the company to success, and already has an impressive track record in future-focused business development. He previously founded Clever Bins – the solar powered digital advertising bins found in many of the nation’s cities – and digital concierge service MyCityVenue – now part of SecretEscapes.

“As a CEO, it is one of my primary duties to make sure Kar-go remains a fantastic investment, this can only be achieved by our team producing spectacular results. We can’t wait to show the world what we produce,” he said.

“We have a stellar team who are excited to have begun working on what we believe will probably be the best autonomous delivery vehicle in the world. For instance, our multi-award winning lead vehicle designer is part of the World Championship winning Brabham Formula One design team, and also spent years as a Design Engineer at McLaren.”