Cloning did not cause Dolly the sheep to get arthritis, scientists confirm

A new study has dismissed concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis (OA) in Dolly the sheep.

Scientists from the University of Nottingham and the University of Glasgow have published a radiographic assessment of the skeletons of Dolly, Bonnie (Dolly’s naturally conceived daughter) and Megan and Morag (the first two animals to be cloned from differentiated cells) that shows no abnormal OA.

The study follows the team’s research last year into the Nottingham ‘Dollies’, a quartet of sheep cloned in 2007 from the same line as Dolly, that showed the cloned sheep to age the same as naturally born sheep.

According to their assessment of the skeletons, the OA observed within the skeletons is similar to that naturally conceived sheep and Nottingham’s healthy aged clones.

Professor Sandra Corr, Professor of Small Animal Orthopaedic Surgery who has since moved to Glasgow University, said: “We found that the prevalence and distribution of radiographic-OA was similar to that observed in naturally conceived sheep, and our healthy aged cloned sheep.

As a result we conclude that the original concerns that cloning had caused early-onset OA in Dolly were unfounded.”

The new study arose after the findings regarding the Nottingham ‘Dollies’.

Derived from the same cell line that produced Dolly, the four sheep originated from Professor Keith Campbell’s attempts to improve the efficiency of the cloning method somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and were left as his legacy to the University of Nottingham.

Studying the ‘Dollies’, Kevin Sinclair, Professor of Developmental Biology, in the School of Biosciences, along with Corr and David Gardner, Professor of Physiology at Nottingham’s School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, found radiographic evidence of only mild or, in one case, moderate OA.

Images courtesy of the University of Nottingham.

Given that the ‘Dollies’ had aged so apparently normal, the team felt that their findings stood in too stark a contrast to reports that cloning had caused Dolly to suffer from early-onset OA. First emerging in 2003, reports stated that at the age of 5½ Dolly was suffering from OA.

However, the only formal record of any OA in Dolly was a brief mention in a conference abstract, stating that Dolly had OA of the left knee.

In the absence of the original records however, the team were compelled to travel to Edinburgh, where the skeletons are stored in the collections of National Museums Scotland.

With special permission from Dr Andrew Kitchener, Principal Curator of Vertebrates at National Museums Scotland, the team then performed the X-rays on Dolly and her contemporary clones to reassess that 2003 diagnosis.

Sinclair said: “Our findings of last year appeared to be at odds with original concerns surrounding the nature and extent of osteoarthritis in Dolly – who was perceived to have aged prematurely. Yet no formal, comprehensive assessment of osteoarthritis in Dolly was ever undertaken. We therefore felt it necessary to set the record straight.”

Wishing you a futuristic Christmas and a fantastic New Year from team Factor

Factor is taking a break for the Christmas season, but we’ll be returning in January for more futuristic news and features.

Until then, check out our stunning new digital magazine, which is free to read on any device for your future fix.

From the issues of today, to the future of tomorrow and beyond, there’s something for everyone, from flying cars and Richard Stallman on privacy to life in the 22nd century and the space colonies of the future human race. There’s even a look at the Christmas dinners of the future.

And if you’re still looking for presents, check out of bumper futuristic gift guide for ideas to suit every budget.

Merry Christmas, and see you in 2018!

FCC votes to repeal net neutrality rules

On Thursday, the Federal Communications Commission voted to repeal the so-called net neutrality regulations that prohibited broadband providers from blocking websites or charging for higher-quality service on certain content. The FCC’s net neutrality rules were originally passed in 2015.

Doctors say Haemophilia A trial results are "mind-blowing"

Doctors say the results of a gene therapy trial into haemophilia A, whose suffers don't produce a protein needed to stop bleeding, are "mind-blowing". Thirteen patients given the gene therapy at Barts Health NHS Trust are now off treatment with 11 producing near-normal levels of the protein.

Source: BBC

Scientists use stem cells to make paralysed rat walk again

Scientists have used stem cells from an adult human's mouth to induce spinal cord regeneration in a rat. This effectively created a pathway circumventing the injured area so that instructions from the brain could reach the rest of the body, curing the animal that was previously totally paralysed.

NASA uses AI to find new exoplanet

Researchers have announced the discovery of an eighth planet orbiting the star Kepler-90. The discovery of Kepler 90i was made when researchers on the Kepler planet-hunting telescope teamed up with artificial intelligence specialists at Google to analyse data collected by the space-based observatory.

AI engine AlphaZero's win will "scramble" chess world

Having beaten the world's the highest-rated chess engine Stockfish, world champion chess player Viswanathan Anand believes the AI programme AlphaZero will change the way humans play the game. "We've got a clean start and the implications are very interesting," said Anand.

Source: ESPN

Following criticism, animal shelter fires security robot

A San Francisco animal adoption agency will immediately stop using a controversial security robot. The move comes after the San Francisco SPCA had been criticised for its deployment of a Knightscope K9 to mitigate vandalism and the presence of homeless people at its Mission District office.

Source: Ars Technica