Cosmic radio burst traced back to distant dwarf galaxy

A burst of cosmic radio waves has finally been traced back to its source: an old dwarf galaxy located more than 3 billion light years from Earth.

Such bursts are rare and last only briefly, but have been of interest since their first detection almost ten years ago due to their appearance from outside our galaxy.

Fast radio bursts flash for just a few milliseconds and need to be very powerful in order to be observed from Earth. Combined with their origin being outside our galaxy, the fact that none of those originally observed were detected again has led to such bursts causing great interest in the astronomical community.

The Fornax dwarf galaxy, which, like the galaxy responsible for the cosmic radio burst, is significantly smaller than our own Milky Way. Image courtesy of ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

A repeating burst discovered in 2012 allowed researchers to monitor its area of the sky with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Arecibo radio dish in Puerto Rico.

The development of high-speed data recording and real-time data analysis software by an astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley, allowed the VLA to detect a total of nine bursts over the period of a month last year.

The VLA’s detection pinpointed the burst to within a tenth of an arcsecond, subsequent efforts by larger European and American radio interferometer arrays further narrowed it to within one-hundredth of an arcsecond, within a region about 100 light years in diameter. Deep imaging by the Gemini North Telescope followed and revealed an optically faint dwarf galaxy that the VLA found to continuously emit low-level radio waves.

Image courtesy of Danielle Futselaar (www.artsource.nl)

This emission is typical of a galaxy with an active nucleus perhaps indicative of a central supermassive black hole. It is also noted that extremely bright exploding stars – called superluminous supernovae – and long gamma ray bursts also occur in this type of galaxy. Both such events are believed to be associated with the massive, highly magnetic and rapidly rotating neutron stars called magnetars.

“All these threads point to the idea that in this environment, something generates these magnetars,” said co-author and UC Berkeley astronomer Casey Law.

“It could be created by a superluminous supernova or a long gamma ray burst, and then later on, as it evolves and its rotation slows down a bit, it produces these fast radio bursts as well as continuous radio emission powered by that spindown. Later on in life, it looks like the magnetars we see in our galaxy, which have extremely strong magnetic fields but rotate more like ordinary pulsars.”

Law’s theory is but one, though the new data has ruled out several explanations for the origin of the radio bursts that had previously been offered. Law’s team are the first to observe the bursts as a cosmological phenomenon and where said phenomenon is occurring; the objective now is to figure out the reason for the phenomenon’s occurrence.

Using CRISPR, UK scientists edit DNA of human embryos

For the first time in the UK, scientists have altered human embryos. Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR, the scientists turned off the protein OCT4, which is thought to be important in early embryo development. In doing so, cells that normally go on to form the placenta, yolk sac and foetus failed to develop.

Source: BBC

Tesla and AMD developing AI chip for self-driving cars

Tesla has partnered with AMD to develop a dedicated chip that will handle autonomous driving tasks in its cars. Tesla's Autopilot programme is currently headed by former AMD chip architect Jim Keller, and it is said that more than 50 people are working on the initiative under his leadership.

Source: CNBC

Synthetic muscle developed that can lift 1,000 times its own weight

Scientists have used a 3D printing technique to create an artificial muscle that can lift 1,000 times its own weight. "It can push, pull, bend, twist, and lift weight. It's the closest artificial material equivalent we have to a natural muscle," said Dr Aslan Miriyev, from the Creative Machines lab.

Source: Telegraph

Head of AI at Google criticises "AI apocalypse" scaremongering

John Giannandrea, the senior vice president of engineering at Google, has condemned AI scaremongering, promoted by people like Elon Musk ."I just object to the hype and the sort of sound bites that some people have been making," said Giannandrea."I am definitely not worried about the AI apocalypse."

Source: CNBC

Scientists engineer antibody that attacks 99% of HIV strains

Scientists have engineered an antibody that attacks 99% of HIV strains and is built to attack three critical parts of the virus, which makes it harder for the HIV virus to resist its effects. The International Aids Society said it was an "exciting breakthrough". Human trials will begin in 2018.

Source: BBC

Facebook has a plan to stop fake news from influencing elections

Mark Zuckerberg has outlined nine steps that Facebook will take to "protect election integrity". “I care deeply about the democratic process and protecting its integrity," he said during a live broadcast on his Facebook page. "I don’t want anyone to use our tools to undermine our democracy.”

Renault unveils unorthodox ‘car of the future’: a dockable, peanut-shaped driverless pod

Renault has unveiled its take on the car of the future: a peanut-shaped, mulit-directional driverless vehicle that is capable of docking into a train of vehicles.

Designed by Yuchen Cai, a student of Central St Martins’ MA in Industrial Design, the vehicle is the winning design in competition run between Renault and the prestigious design school, and was honed during a two-week stay at Renault’s Paris studio by Cai this summer.

Dubbed The Float, the vehicle was unveiled today at DesignJunction, a four-day design event that kicked off today in London.

“Everyone has accepted that cars will be part of the sharing economy in the future – that’s what’s going to happen,” said Will Sorrel, event director of DesignJunction, this morning.

“This takes it one step further and these pods are this peanut shape so they can join together, so the autonomous vehicles can link up and join together if they’re going in the same direction, conserving energy.”

The Float by Yuchen Cai, winner of the Renault and Central Saint Martins, UAL competition

The Float is rather unusually designed to run using magnetic levitation – known more commonly as maglev – and would be capable of moving in any direction, eliminating the need for tedious three-point turns.

Made entirely of glass, the vehicle is designed to have sliding doors. Two bucket-style seats enable up to two passengers to travel per pod, and swivel mechanism ensures easy departure from the pods.

When the vehicle is docked to another, however, the passengers aren’t just stuck grimacing at each other through glass. Instead passengers can rotate their seats using built-in controls and power up a sound system that allows them to talk to the pod next door.

Those who are feeling less sociable can change the opacity of the glass, ensuring privacy when their neighbours are not so appealing to communicate with.

The Float is also designed to be paired with a smartphone app, through which would-be passengers could hail a vehicle as required.

“Central Saint Martins’ Industrial Design students really took this on board when creating their vision of the future,” said Anthony Lo, Renault’s  vice-president of exterior design and one of the competition judges. “Yuchen’s winning design was particularly interesting thanks to its use of Maglev technology and its tessellated design. It was a pleasure to have her at the Renault design studios and see her vision come to life.”

“From a technological viewpoint, the prospect of vehicle autonomy is fascinating, but it’s also critical to hold in mind that such opportunities also present significant challenges to how people interact and their experience of future cities,” added Nick Rhodes, Central Saint Martins programme director of product ceramic & industrial design.

“Recognition of the success of the projects here lies in their ability to describe broader conceptions of what driverless vehicles might become and how we may come to live with them.”