Two potentially habitable planets discovered just 12 light years away

Astronomers have identified four Earth-sized planets orbiting a star 12 light years from our own Sun, two of which are in the habitable zone and so could be host to liquid water.

The planets, which are thought to be around 70% larger than Earth, orbit a star known as tau Ceti, which is in the Cetus constellation, and has a similar spectral range to our sun, although only 78% of the mass.

As a result, the astronomers, led by a team at the University of Hertfordshire, not only believe that the two within the habitable zone could be host to life, but could be targets for colonisation by our descendents.

The research, which is published today in the Astronomical Journal, represents a significant step in the ongoing hunt for life on other planets, providing one of the closest discoveries outside of our own solar system.

The Cetus constellation, which is traditionally depicted as a whale in mythology

The planets were detected not by direct imaging – that is, capturing an image of them using an instrument such as the Hubble space telescope – but by observing wobbles in the movement of the star, from which they can infer the existence, likely size and orbit distance of surrounding planets.

“We’re getting tantalisingly close to observing the correct limits required for detecting Earth-like planets,” said study lead author Dr Fabo Feng, a research fellow at the University of Hertfordshire.

“Our detection of such weak wobbles is a milestone in the search for Earth analogs and the understanding of the Earth’s habitability through comparison with these.”

This technique was first implemented by the astronomers in 2013, and has proved vital to the discovery of planetary bodies.

“We realised that we could see how the star’s activity differed at different wavelengths and use that information to separate this activity from signals of planets,” said Dr Mikko Tuomi, study co-author and pioneer of the technique.

“Since then we’ve painstakingly improved the sensitivity of our techniques and could rule out two of the signals our team identified in 2013 as planets. But no matter how we look at the star, there seems to be at least four rocky planets orbiting it.”

The planets orbiting tau Ceti, compared to those of Earth. The green band is the habitable zone, where planets are thought to have the potential to host life. Image courtesy of the University of Hertfordshire

However, while the discovery is undoubtedly exciting, the astronomers have identified another quality to the star that could make the survival of life, either in the form of biologically native organisms or occupying humans, more challenging.

Tau Ceti also have what the university describes as a “massive debris disc” surrounding it, which would likely mean that the planets would be frequently bombarded with asteroids and comets, playing havoc with any atmosphere are providing challenging environmental conditions.

Nevertheless, the planets could well prove to be a valuable stop for future humans, and may even provide a home for hitherto-undiscovered life.

New research claims a video game can improve doctors’ ability to recognise severe trauma in patients

New research has concluded a specifically-designed video game improves doctors’ ability to recognise when patients need to be transferred to a severe trauma centre.

The research, by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and published today in the BMJ, revealed the game Night Shift was better at preparing doctors to recognise patients who needed higher levels of care than reading traditional educational materials.

This was the case even though doctors who were made to play the game, in which doctors play as a fictitious, young emergency physician treating severe trauma patients, enjoyed it less than those who were asked to read relevant materials.

“Physicians must make decisions quickly and with incomplete information. Each year, 30,000 preventable deaths occur after injury, in part because patients with severe injuries who initially present to non-trauma centres are not promptly transferred to a hospital that can provide appropriate care,” said the game’s creator Deepika Mohan, MD, MPH and assistant professor in Pitt’s departments of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery.

“An hour of playing the video game recalibrated physicians’ brains to such a degree that, six months later, they were still out-performing their peers in recognising severe trauma.”

Night Shift was designed by Mohan to tap into the part of the brain that uses pattern recognition and previous experience to make snap decisions by using subconscious mental shortcuts – a process called heuristics.

Doctors in non-trauma centres typically see only about one severe trauma per 1,000 patients. As a result, their heuristic abilities can become skewed toward obvious injuries such as gunshot wounds, and miss equally severe traumas such as internal injuries from falls.

On average, 70% of severely injured patients who present to non-trauma centres are under-triaged and not transferred to trauma centres as recommended by clinical practice.

“There are many reasons beyond the doctor’s heuristics as to why a severe trauma patient wouldn’t be transferred to a trauma centre, ranging from not having an ambulance available to a lack of proper diagnostic tools,” said Mohan.

“So, it is important to emphasize that recalibrating heuristics won’t completely solve the under-triage problem and that the problem isn’t entirely due to physicians’ diagnostic skills. But it’s heartening to know we’re on track to develop a game that shows promise at improving on current educational training.”

For the study, Mohan recruited 368 physicians from across the US who did not work at hospitals specialising in severe trauma. Half were assigned to play the game and half were asked to spend at least an hour reading the educational materials.

Participants then responded to questionnaires and completed a simulation that tested how often they “under-triaged,” or failed to send severe trauma patients to hospitals with the resources necessary to handle them.

Physicians who played the game under-triaged 53% of the time, compared with 64% for those who read the educational materials.

Six months later, Mohan reassessed the physicians and found that the effect of the game persisted, with those who played the game under-triaging 57% of the time, compared to 74% for those who had read the educational materials.

Multimedia courtesy of Schell Games.

Researchers believe modified CRISPR could be used without editing DNA

Researchers from the US' Salk Institute have used CRISPR as a switch that turns genes on and off and allows harmful mutant genes to be disabled without affecting the structure of their DNA. Until this development gene editing using CRISPR carried the risk of causing unintended effects.

Source: Gizmodo

Nissan to trial robo-taxis in Japan next year

The carmaker Nissan is is partnering with Japanese software company DeNA to test self-driving taxis on Japanese roads from March next year. The free trials will be held over a two-week period in March in Yokohama, and Nissan believes the service could be officially launched in Japan in the early 2020s.

Source: BBC

Apparently, gaming can save your brain

Research participants who played 3D platforming games like the iconic Super Mario 64 had more gray matter in their hippocampus after playing, That part of the brain transforms short-term memories into long-term ones and maintains the spatial memory that helps us navigate the world around us.

Source: Inverse

San Francisco votes to restrict delivery robots

San Francisco officials have voted to restrict where delivery robots can go in the city, amid concerns about the safety of pedestrians, particularly elderly people and children. Start-ups will now have to get permits to use such bots, which will be restricted to less crowded urban areas.

Source: BBC

Steam stops accepting Bitcoin

When Valve first started accepting Bitcoin in April 2016 it was trading around $450 per coin. Today, with Bitcoin surging past $12,000 per coin, Valve has announced that "Steam will no longer support Bitcoin as a payment method on our platform due to high fees and volatility in the value of Bitcoin."

Source: Ars Technica

The maker of Budweiser beer reserves 40 Tesla electric trucks

Budweiser beer maker Anheuser-Busch has reserved 40 Tesla all-electric Semi trucks as it seeks to reduce fuel costs and vehicle emissions. The reservation is one of the largest publicly announced orders Tesla has received, while production of the trucks is scheduled to begin by 2019.

Source: Reuters