Two potentially habitable planets discovered just 12 light years away

Astronomers have identified four Earth-sized planets orbiting a star 12 light years from our own Sun, two of which are in the habitable zone and so could be host to liquid water.

The planets, which are thought to be around 70% larger than Earth, orbit a star known as tau Ceti, which is in the Cetus constellation, and has a similar spectral range to our sun, although only 78% of the mass.

As a result, the astronomers, led by a team at the University of Hertfordshire, not only believe that the two within the habitable zone could be host to life, but could be targets for colonisation by our descendents.

The research, which is published today in the Astronomical Journal, represents a significant step in the ongoing hunt for life on other planets, providing one of the closest discoveries outside of our own solar system.

The Cetus constellation, which is traditionally depicted as a whale in mythology

The planets were detected not by direct imaging – that is, capturing an image of them using an instrument such as the Hubble space telescope – but by observing wobbles in the movement of the star, from which they can infer the existence, likely size and orbit distance of surrounding planets.

“We’re getting tantalisingly close to observing the correct limits required for detecting Earth-like planets,” said study lead author Dr Fabo Feng, a research fellow at the University of Hertfordshire.

“Our detection of such weak wobbles is a milestone in the search for Earth analogs and the understanding of the Earth’s habitability through comparison with these.”

This technique was first implemented by the astronomers in 2013, and has proved vital to the discovery of planetary bodies.

“We realised that we could see how the star’s activity differed at different wavelengths and use that information to separate this activity from signals of planets,” said Dr Mikko Tuomi, study co-author and pioneer of the technique.

“Since then we’ve painstakingly improved the sensitivity of our techniques and could rule out two of the signals our team identified in 2013 as planets. But no matter how we look at the star, there seems to be at least four rocky planets orbiting it.”

The planets orbiting tau Ceti, compared to those of Earth. The green band is the habitable zone, where planets are thought to have the potential to host life. Image courtesy of the University of Hertfordshire

However, while the discovery is undoubtedly exciting, the astronomers have identified another quality to the star that could make the survival of life, either in the form of biologically native organisms or occupying humans, more challenging.

Tau Ceti also have what the university describes as a “massive debris disc” surrounding it, which would likely mean that the planets would be frequently bombarded with asteroids and comets, playing havoc with any atmosphere are providing challenging environmental conditions.

Nevertheless, the planets could well prove to be a valuable stop for future humans, and may even provide a home for hitherto-undiscovered life.

Steve “Woz” Wozniak to advise hologram emoji company that he calls “groundbreaking”

Apple’s co-founder Steve “Woz” Wozniak has found himself a new gig; Woz has joined the hologram emoji company, Mojiit, as an adviser.

In his role as advisor to Mojiit, the legendary entrepreneur and engineer will help assemble a world-class engineering team in addition to bringing investors and partnerships to the newly launched startup. Wozniak will also serve as mentor to Mojiit founder, Jeremy Greene.

“I’m thrilled to join Mojiit as an advisor,” said Wozniak. “Jeremy is a natural leader, the company is groundbreaking, it’s going to change the ecommerce space, and it’s a lot of fun.”

Created in 2017, Mojiit is the latest startup technology venture from Greene. The company’s tech essentially enables users to project and share 3D hologram emojis via smartphones.

The platform turns users into emojis by scanning their face, which can then be sent to loved ones and friends. Once a Mojiit message is received, it will map the area where it is received and place the Mojiit hologram there in real time, so it works in a similar way to Pokemon Go.

“Steve is one of the best and brilliant engineers in the entire world. But outside of that, he’s a wonderful man,” said Greene. “There isn’t anyone I’d want to be in business with more than this guy. He’s a legend. Who better to learn from than the guy who created the computer?”

Image courtesy of Nichollas Harrison. Featured image courtesy of Mojiit

In addition to consumer use, businesses of all kinds can tap into hologram emojis with Mojiit’s technology.

Mojiit investors already  include NFL alum Ed Reed, and the company was able to raise a total of $1 million in its seed round of funding.

Alongside the appointment of Woz, Entourage and Ballers producer Rob Weiss recently joined the company as a creative director.

“It’s exciting to expand beyond television and film to digital platforms,” said Weiss. “Hologram technology brings incredible opportunity to entertainment and media. I’m thrilled to be leading creative at Mojiit.”

Nanoengineers send antibiotic-delivering micromotors into the body to treat cancer-causing infection

Nanoengineers have demonstrated for the first time how “micromotors” that measure half the width of a human hair can be used to transport antibiotics through the body.

Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego tested the micromotors in mice with Helicobacter pylori infections, which can also be found in about two-thirds of the world’s population and while many people will never notice any signs of its presence it can cause peptic ulcers and stomach cancer.

The mice received the micromotors – packed with a clinical dose of the antibiotic clarithromycin – orally once a day for five consecutive days.

Afterwards, nanoengineers evaluated the bacterial count in each mouse stomach and found that treatment with the micromotors was slightly more effective than when the same dose of antibiotic was given in combination with proton pump inhibitors, which also suppress gastric acid production.

Micromotors administered to the mice swam rapidly throughout the stomach while neutralising gastric acid, which can be destructive to orally administered drugs such as antibiotics and protein-based pharmaceuticals.

Because gastric acid is so destructive to traditional antibiotics drugs used to treat bacterial infections, ulcers and other diseases in the stomach are normally taken with additional substances, called proton pump inhibitors.

But when taken over longer periods or in high doses, proton pump inhibitors can cause adverse side effects including headaches, diarrhea and fatigue. In more serious cases, they can cause anxiety or depression.

The micromotors, however, have a built-in mechanism that neutralises gastric acid and effectively deliver their drug payloads in the stomach without requiring the use of proton pump inhibitors.

“It’s a one-step treatment with these micromotors, combining acid neutralisation with therapeutic action,” said Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, a postdoctoral scholar in Wang’s research group at UC San Diego and a co-first author of the paper.

The nanoengineers say that while the present results are promising, this work is still at an early stage.

To test their work, the team is planning future studies to into the therapeutic performance of the micromotors in animals and humans, and will compare it with other standard therapies used to combat stomach diseases.

UC San Diego nanoengineers also plan to test different drug combinations with the micromotors to treat multiple diseases in the stomach or in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

Overall, the researchers say that this work opens the door to the use of synthetic motors as active delivery platforms in the treatment of diseases.

Image and video courtesy of the Laboratory for Nanobioelectronics at UC San Diego.